In gate valve, a wedge gate slides between the seats of the valve. Movement of the gate is at right angle to the flow of fluid. By opening the valve, flow path is enlarged in a highly non-linear manner with respect to percentage of opening.
Gate valve is normally used for isolation application where only fully close or fully open position is required. This valve is suitable where frequent opening and closing is required. The wedge gate fully retracts in the bonnet. So, the pressure drops across the wedge gate is less.
Globe valve is widely used valve in high pressure steam and water line. movement is parallel to the flow of the fluid.
Disc of the valve needs to move a small distance from its seat to get a full flow. And the main advantage of this valve is that it can be used for throttling purpose and where positive shutoff is required. Globe valve is used for isolation and regulation purpose.